Patiala district is one of the famous princely states of erstwhile Punjab. Forming the south-eastern part of the state, it lies between 29°49’ and 30°47’ north latitude, 75°58’ and 76°54’ east longitude.
It is surrounded by the districts of Fatehgarh Sahib, Rupnagar and the Union Territory of Chandigarh in the north, Sangrur district in the west, Ambala and Kurukshetra districts of neighbouring state of Haryana in the east and Kaithal district of Haryana in the south.
Historical Places Surrounding Patiala
Situated on the Sukhna Nadi, a tributary of the Ghaggar, at a distance of nine miles north-east of Rajpura on the Rajpura-Chandigarh Road, Banur is an ancient town. Its ruins testify to its former grandeur and importance, but its history has been lost in oblivion. Its ancient name was Pushpa or Popa Nagri or Pushpawati-the City of Flowers, and it was famous for the scent of chambeli flowers grown in its numerous gardens. The place was also well known for its musicians. One Banno Chhimban, a washer woman, is mentioned as a great musician of the days of Akbar.
During the reign of Emperor Akbar, Banur became a Mahal of the Sarkar of Sirhind and continued to be so up to the beginning of the eighteenth century.
In addition to the tomb of Malik Suleman, the suburbs of Banur contain the ruins of an old imperial fort, popularly known as Zulmgarh, the citadel of tyranny, and of another fort of Banda Ali Beg of a more recent date.
Samana at a distance of 17 miles south-west of Patiala is a place of considerable antiquity. It traces its history to the days of Raja Jaipal who ruled over, among others, the territories of Bhatinda, Samana. It fell into the hands of Shahab-ud-Din Muhammad Gauri after the conquest of Ajmer and Delhi and was entrusted to Qutb-ud-Din Aibek in 1192, along with the territories of Ghuram and Sunam. With the increasing importance of Sirhind under the Mughals, Samana received a little set-back.
While Samana is said to be a place of saints and scholars during the Mughal days, it is notorious also for its professional executioners, who served at Delhi and Sirhind. Sayyad Jala-ud-Din, who executed Guru Teg Bahadur at Delhi in 1675 was from Samana. Beg brothers, who mercilessly butchered the younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh also belonged to Samana. This hated town was therefore one of the first places to have been sacked by Banda Bahadur. But the Mughals were yet too strong for the rising power of Sikhs and Samana had to be given up by them towards the end of 1710 AD.It was retaken in about 1742 AD by Baba Ala Singh, the founder of the Patiala ruling family and was recognized as a part of his territories by Ahamd Shah Durani.
The Town Sanour lies 4 miles South-east of Patiala. It lies on a high mound. The town is of some antiquity. In the time of Babar, Malik Baha-ud-Din Khokar became the chief of this pargana which was called Chaurasi, having 84 villages. In 1748, it came into the possession of Baba Ala Singh.
Ghuram (Kuhram or Kahram)
Situated in 30° 7′ N and 76° 33′ E 29 miles (slightly West) of Rajpura and 6 miles South (slightly East) of Patiala. Ghuram (Renamed Ramgarh) is a very ancient palace. An old tradition takes it back to the days of the Ramayana, being the abode of Ramaâ€™s maternal grandfather. The old ruins in its vicinity speak for its antiquity, though its early history has been long lost. During the days of Rajput Kings, Ghuram (Kuhram of the Persian Writers) was an important town with a strong fort to protect it.
During the fifties of the seventeenth century, Ghuram was held by Malhi Khan as a biswedar proprietor. He was a tyrant and was notorious for his extortions. Baba Ala Singh of Patiala had risen to eminence by now. He was a brave soldier and humane ruler and was looked upon by the oppressed people as source of timely help and consolation. The people of Ghuram came to Patiala and appealed to his noble wife, Mai Fato, for deliverance. Malhi Khan was dispossessed of Ghuram and it was taken under the direct control of Patiala. Maharaja Karam Singh of Patiala built a fort here and named it Ramgarh, evidently in memory of Rama of the Ramayana fame.